Posts filed under ‘Faculty research’

A Beginner’s Guide to World War I

WWIopener

The so-called “Great War” is in the spotlight this year, as the world marks the centennial of the start of World War I. For the cover story of our July-August 2014 issue, I talked to Penn State historian Sophie De Schaepdrijver, who has spent much of her career studying the war—its origins, its effects on civilian life, and the changing attitudes people have about its role in history. (That’s the opening spread of our July-August story, above.)

I also asked De Schaeprijver what resources she’d recommend for someone interested in learning more about World War I. We shared five of her suggestions in the magazine; below is a longer, more detailed list.

1. Rites of Spring, a book by Modris Eksteins.“It’s such a great cultural history of the war and what kind of thinking made the war possible. What made people think it was worthwhile? What made them stick it out in the face of so much loss? Those guys on the front came from all walks of life—chicken farmers and teachers, conservatives and socialists, Catholics and Jews—and what is absolutely baffling is how little there was in terms of protest. There’s a saying that behind every soldier is someone holding a gun to his head, but you can’t really say that here—there’s a lot of self-mobilization, people convincing themselves that they should be there.

“Eksteins teases it out, unravels the different strands. It’s a pretty complex book, but accessible and extremely well written. It is the book that sparked my interest in World War I as a societal event, and I return to it quite often.”

2. A Son at the Front, a novel by Edith Wharton. “Probably her least well-known book. It’s written from the perspective of divorced parents whose son is in the war. What I like is that it was pretty much rejected and not seen as an important book, written by a woman, and yet it shows this dual point of view: The parents share this anguish over their son at the front, but they don’t reject the war—they feel it is worth fighting.”

3. Absolute Destruction: Military Culture and the Practices of War in Imperial Germany, a book by Isabel Hull. “This one is pretty academic [Hull is on the faculty at Cornell University], but I like it a lot. It talks about the German military as an organization that develops a culture of its own, and why that tells us a great deal about the violence of the first World War. It allows you to grasp why the violence could get out of hand like this without having to resort to explanations like racism, or describing World War I as merely a prologue to World War II. It’s a ‘think book.’ It brings in the notion of the army as its own organization that’s going to develop its own logic—a nice bit of organizational culture, which is interesting well beyond military history.”

The ruins of Ypres, Belgium, after the war. Image courtesy Great War Primary Document Archive: www.gwpda.org/photos

The ruins of Ypres, Belgium, after the war. Image courtesy Great War Primary Document Archive: http://www.gwpda.org/photos

4. The Regeneration Trilogy, three novels by Pat Parker. “This is fantastic, a contemporary trilogy; one of the three books won the Booker Prize in 1995. The trilogy is about British soldiers, and you see them not at the front but at the home front, being patched up and treated for posttraumatic stress. The author offers a very intelligent reflection on the damage the war does, and she goes into the soldiers’ heads to understand why they want to return to the front. She wrote war books after this, but none as good as this; these are masterpieces.”

5.  World War I Museum, Kansas City. “It’s a great collection, extremely intelligently exhibited. They revamped it a short while ago, and they have a great crew there; it’s just a great educational experience. The building is tremendous; it’s from the 1920s—it was built to be a World War I museum from the start, and the architecture is overwhelming. There’s a lavish circular room on the top floor that houses a panoramic French painting made at the end of World War I, called Panthéon de la Guerre. They made this room just for it. So visiting the museum is an aesthetic as well as educational experience.”

6. War Requiem, an oratorio by Benjamin Britten. “I think it’s brilliant. It was actually composed after World War II, but the text refers to both world wars. It includes the Latin ‘Mass for the Dead’ and poems by Wilfred Owen, who died at the end of World War I and who is for many people—including myself—the greatest poet to come out of that war. There are moments where it’s very jarring, and then there are the soothing notes of the Latin mass. It’s a masterpiece, and I would love to see many performances of it in this centennial year.”

7. A visit to Ypres, Belgium. “Its Flanders Field Museum is in a medieval building that was bombed to complete rubble in the war—as was all of Ypres [pronounced ‘EE-per’]—and rebuilt after the war. Typically after the second world war, things were rebuilt in a boxy modern way, but after World War I, people said, ‘We’re not going to use this as an opportunity to modernize; we are going to recapture what we had. We had gables and canals and cul-de-sacs before, and we’re going to have them again.’ So it’s really quite gorgeous. A stone’s throw away is the Menin Gate, where, every single evening at 8, they stop traffic and buglers sound the ‘Last Post.’ And around the city are major British cemeteries that you can visit on a bicycle or bus tour.”

8. Historial de Grande Guerre, a museum in Péronne, France. “In many ways it’s a completely different experience from the Flanders Field Museum. Péronne is a tiny town, much less lavish than Ypres, and all around it you have the battlefields of the Somme. The museum is a modern one, and it’s my favorite museum. It’s moving, it’s intelligent, and for me it is the exemplary war museum.

“It makes a couple of extremely intelligent choices—for example, the uniforms are not upright on mannequins; they’re down on the floor, spread out, and you walk around them. It shows a kind of helplessness without imposing it upon you. It doesn’t tug at the emotions; it basically asks you to take a step back and contemplate and decide for yourself what you feel. It’s a form of respect—for those who died, for those who grieved for them, and for that generation—that is very admirable.

“There’s a mystery to World War I—what made these people go on—and the more we learn, the more we know we’ll never get to the bottom of it; we can only show bits and pieces. The museum conveys that very well.”

Tina Hay, editor

July 1, 2014 at 10:47 am 3 comments

The Penn Stater Daily — March 25, 2014

2014_total_edited

Hooray for Hollywood: In the March/April issue of the magazine, we told you about Lights. Camera. Cure., a THON-inspired dance marathon held in Hollywood and spearheaded by a group of Penn State alums. This year’s event was Sunday, and today’s Collegian reports that LCC raised a whopping $80,820.59 for the Four Diamonds Fund and the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles. Check out LCC’s Facebook page to see the celebs who stopped by.

Party starters: You might remember our feature on political science prof Pete Hatemi from last fall. Hatemi’s research explores the surprising links between genetics and political views. He’ll be discussing his findings at the Schlow Library in State College on Thursday, as part of the Research Unplugged series. Admission is free, as are the fantastic Irving’s bagels.

State of SPD: More good news on the decline of dangerous drinking holiday State Patty’s Day — and proof that some campus and downtown initiatives are making a difference. A graph posted over at Onward State shows that both crime and alcohol-related hospital visits hit all-time lows this year—and the community service event, State Day of Service, is more popular than ever.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

March 25, 2014 at 2:33 pm Leave a comment

The Football Coach Doesn’t Need Much Sleep. Here’s Why.

James Franklin, on the job at 5:07 a.m.

James Franklin, on the job at 5:07 a.m.

For most people, it seems, the takeaway from James Franklin’s introductory news conference on Saturday was his cute daughters, his enthusiasm for college football, and/or his pledge to “dominate the state” in recruiting. But this is what stood out to me:

Someone asked Franklin about what his message to Penn State players would be, and that caused Franklin to launch into a tale about how hard he’ll be working—and when. He said, “We’ve got a lot of work to do in a very, very short period of time, and it’s time sensitive because of the recruiting process as well. Basically when we leave here probably until 2 in the morning, and we’ll be back up at 3 or 4 in the morning getting going again. Luckily, I’m fortunate I’m not a guy that needs a whole lot of sleep. My wife does. We always have those discussions. She’s amazed that I can get by on five hours sleep. That’s just kind of who I am.”

This caused me to listen closer because I had just put the finishing touches on a feature for our March/April issue—a Q&A with Alan Derickson, professor of labor and employment relations and history, about his new book: Dangerously Sleepy: Overworked Americans and the Cult of Manly Wakefulness. I love the title, and better than that, the topic is really interesting. Derickson traces hundreds of years of American history, looking to explain how sleep deprivation came to be seen as a virtue. Among the culprits: Thomas Edison, Ben Franklin, Charles Lindbergh … and football coaches.

Derickson focuses on steelworkers, Pulllman porters, and long-haul truckers to explain, in real terms, the problems of insufficient sleep. Stay tuned for the upcoming Q&A. In the meantime, you can check out this Harvard Business Review piece to get a sense of Derickson’s research.

Lori Shontz, senior editor

January 14, 2014 at 6:24 pm 1 comment

The Penn Stater Daily — Jan. 14, 2014

@jasonncorneliuss, via Onward State

@jasonncorneliuss, via Onward State

Snap happy: Just days after James Franklin arrived in State College, the student body seems to have already embraced Penn State’s new head football coach — and the proof is in the selfies. When Franklin made an appearance at last night’s men’s hockey game, which including some mingling in the student section, the camera phones were out in full force. Franklin was more than happy to strike a pose. Onward State ranked the 10 best photos here.

Moving on: In more serious football news, long-time defensive line coach Larry Johnson has announced he won’t return to Penn State. ESPN reported Monday that Johnson declined a position on Coach James Franklin’s staff. “Getting promoted isn’t the issue to me,” Johnson told ESPN.com. “At the end of the day, it’s giving Coach Franklin the chance to move forward.” SI.com reports that Johnson in in talks with Ohio State, where he’s expected to join Urban Meyer’s coaching staff.

To good health: Back in 2011, we covered some interesting research from IST faculty member Erika Poole. Then, Poole was studying the impact of new video gaming systems (like Wii Fit and Kinect) on the rising rate of childhood obesity. Today, Poole is still helping people make healthier choices. In this story from today’s Penn State News, Poole talks about the personal inspiration behind her latest research, which is focused on the new crop of health-related mobile apps and devices. She’s working with other experts to design technologies that “fit into consumers’ daily lives,” she says, to create sustainable, healthy changes.

Suit yourself: In case you haven’t heard, Jan. 14 is officially National Dress Up Your Pet Day. The Penn State Bookstore’s (@PSUBookstore) tweeted a photo earlier this morning, of this disgruntled (yet dapper!) feline. Dogs and cats of the world, please accept our sincerest apologies.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

January 14, 2014 at 1:15 pm Leave a comment

The Penn Stater Daily — Jan. 9, 2014

World’s Best: Some cool news for Penn State’s World Campus, whose programs were just ranked among the best in country by U.S. News & World Report. Penn State’s online bachelor’s program came in at No.3; the online graduate engineering program ranked No. 5; and the graduate computer information technology program made the No. 6 spot. Way to go, World!

Moving On: Eva Pell, former Penn State VP for research turned head of science research at the Smithsonian Institute, is stepping down. After four years as the Smithsonian’s undersecretary for science, Pell announced plans to retire in March. Her 35-year tenure at Penn State began as assistant professor of plant pathology in 1973.

Sleeping Beauty: We all know that skimping on sleep isn’t great for overall health. But thanks to this graphic from Huffington Post, the negative effects suddenly look even worse—literally. Among lots of other pro-sleep findings, the article cites a Penn State study linking insufficient sleep with out-of-whack hormone levels, which stimulate appetite and can lead to obesity. (P.S. look out for an interesting piece on sleep — and why Americans can’t seem to get enough of it — in our upcoming March/April issue.)

In Plane Sight: Still no official announcements regarding Penn State’s next football coach, though various outlets are reporting that Vanderbilt University’s James Franklin has been offered the job. Hoping to catch Franklin exiting a private plane returning from Destin, Fla. (where Franklin reportedly has a home), a handful of reporters braved the  bitter cold last night at the University Park airport — to no avail. Check out Onward State‘s coverage here.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

January 9, 2014 at 11:43 am Leave a comment

Inside Our Latest Issue

JF_coverHad a chance to peek through our latest issue? The Jan./Feb. 2014 issue of The Penn Stater likely arrived in your mailbox sometime over the last week or so; our office copies were patiently awaiting us yesterday when we returned from the holiday break.

Some highlights from the new issue:

—The cover story, “Wired for Learning,” is a photo-filled virtual tour of the Paterno and Pattee Libraries. Especially if you haven’t been on campus in a while, you’ll be surprised by how much has changed. The library is not only outfitted with the latest technology, but, as senior editor Ryan Jones ’95 discovered firsthand, it’s becoming the place to “see and be seen” on campus. Thanks to group study rooms, TV lounges, and tons of computer workstations, the library now rivals the HUB as University Park’s most social spot.

—In November, when senior editor Lori Shontz ’91 came back from Discovery-U, a daylong event at which Penn State scientists and engineers gave brief presentations on their research, she raved about the fascinating talk by Khanjan Mehta ’03g. Mehta’s controversial concept: that even the most brilliant-seeming ideas can—and often do—fail to effect real change. As director of Penn State’s Humanitarian Engineering and Social Entrepreneurship Program, Mehta helps students engineer ways to improve life for people in developing countries—and turn good ideas into workable solutions. An adapted version of his talk, “Why Ideas Fail,” is featured on page 26.

—”Shows of Support” is a behind-the-scenes look at USO tours as seen through the lens of Steve Manuel ’84, ’92g, who’s photographed dozens of USO tours all over the world. You’ll see some familiar faces in Manuel’s photos, as the tours often include big-name athletes and performers. And Manuel’s stories (like the one about comedian Dane Cook’s brush with heat stroke in Kuwait) are just as interesting as the images he’s captured.

What do you think of the new issue? Share your thoughts in the comments below, or send an email to heypennstater@psu.edu.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

January 3, 2014 at 4:53 pm Leave a comment

The Penn Stater Daily — Dec. 10, 2013

Christopher Weddle/CDT

Christopher Weddle/CDT

Lasting legacy: Penn State students gathered on the Old Main lawn last night to honor Nelson Mandela, who passed away Thursday. The vigil was organized by Penn State’s NAACP chapter, the African Student Association, and Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity. Several students, including ASA member Precious Anizoba, spoke about Mandela’s legacy: “Here was a man who simply set his goals then went out and accomplished them. He had a passion for his work. We risk mediocrity if we do not find and pursue our passions.”

Harrowing details: Last week, we told you about Lone Survivor, an upcoming film based on the mission that took the life of Lt. Michael Murphy ’98, among 18 other American casualties. This morning, NBC’s Today Show featured an interview with Marcus Luttrell, the only Navy SEAL to survive. The details of how the mission (which included a three-hour gunfight) played out are intense, and Luttrell says the movie’s reenactment is accurate — and powerful.

Snow days galore: Lots of snow days for students at Penn State branch campuses this morning, thanks to some serious snow in Southeastern PA. At last count, the Mont Alto, Berks, York, Lehigh Valley, Abington, and Brandywine campuses closed today due to inclement weather. Check @psutxt on Twitter for updates, and stay safe out there.

Splurge control: Here’s some timely research news from Penn State’s S. Shyam Sundar, distinguished professor of communications. According to an online study, long transactions can cause online shoppers to become more impulsive with their purchases, a result of “decision fatigue”— which, for me, goes a little something this: Monogrammed? No. Overnight shipping? No. Gift-wrapped and dipped in chocolate? FINE! Fortunately, according to Sundar’s research, shoppers can regain some self-control when their decisions express their personalities — for instance, when someone concerned about the environment is given eco-friendly options that “affirm their green identity.” Interesting stuff.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

December 10, 2013 at 12:09 pm Leave a comment

The Penn Stater Daily — Nov. 12, 2013

Best for vets: In case you missed it, Penn State earned a timely honor yesterday afternoon, when U.S. News & World Report announced its rankings of “Best Colleges for Veterans.” Penn State, which has more than 900 veterans at University Park alone, topped the list at No. 1. Learn more here.

News you can snooze: The average American gets fewer than six hours of sleep each night—and according to Alan Derickson, a Penn State professor of labor and employment relations and history, that’s not nearly enough. In a blog post in yesterday’s Harvard Business Review, Derickson explains how “manly wakefulness,” the idea that “real men”  forgo sleep to log more hours at work, is outdated—and dangerous. It’s also the subject of his new book, Dangerously Sleepy: Overworked Americans and the Cult of Manly Wakefulness.

Have dreidel, will travel: OK, it’s offical: there’s a Guinness World Record for everything. Apparently, the current record for number of dreidels spinning simulatenously is a whopping 734. But members of Penn State Hillel are hoping to hit 1,000 on Dec. 3, when they’re inviting anyone with a dreidel and a thirst for victory to come to Alumni Hall and get spinning. According to Onward State, the event is BYOD—though a few extra dreidels will be available. Check out the event page on Facebook for more info.

The scent of State (image from masik.com)

The scent of State (image from masik.com)

Making scents: The Wall Street Journal reports that fragrance company Masik has created a line of Collegiate Fragrances, a collection of colognes and perfumes designed to capture “a University’s essence.” The first few ingredients in Penn State’s fragrance sound pleasant enough—vanilla, lilac, blue cypress, and juniper berries—though some other “notes” are questionable: What exactly does “the elegance of Old Main” smell like? And is it really something you want to dab on your wrists every morning?

Mary Murphy, associate editor

November 12, 2013 at 12:57 pm Leave a comment

The Penn Stater Daily — Nov. 5, 2013

Photo by Christopher Weddle, CDT

Photo by Christopher Weddle, CDT

“Be Your Best”: Former Arizona congresswoman Gabby Giffords and her husband, retired U.S. Navy captain Mark Kelly, delivered an inspirational message last night at Penn State’s Eisenhower Auditorium. Kelly spoke about his career with NASA and lessons learned after tragedy. Giffords, who was the victim of that devastating shooting in Tucson in early 2011, didn’t appear until the end of the talk, when her words brought the crowd to its feet. “I’m still fighting to make the world a better place, and you can too,” Giffords said. “Be bold, be courageous, be your best.”

Journalism legend: Another big name is coming to campus: Bob Woodward, the famed journalist who reported the Watergate scandal, will speak on Feb. 27 at Eisenhower Auditorum. Woodward, who’s nabbed two Pulitzer Prizes and countless journalism awards, is currently the executive editor for The Washington Post. Do yourself a favor and prep for the event by watching All the President’s Men, which seems to be on TV all the time — yet never gets old.

More Morrell: In our July/August 2013 issue, we featured a profile of bestselling author David Morrell ’67g, ’70 PhD, just before the release of his latest thriller, Murder as a Fine Art. In the piece, he talked about how his personal life inspires his work. He goes into more detail in this Q&A with author Mark Rubinstein for The Huffington Post. “My books are very personal,” Morrell says. “Someone once said that if you read them in chronological order, you would have what amounts to an autobiography of my soul.”

Tomatill-old: Well, this is weird: A team of geologists, including Penn State geosciences prof Peter Wilf, discovered a fossilized tomatillo in Argentina. The 52.2 million year old tomatillo is a pretty big deal — it’s the oldest fruit from the tomato family ever found in South America, and it changes the way scientists view the tomato’s evolution. Read more here, and then celebrate with some salsa.

Mary Murphy, associate editor

November 5, 2013 at 11:48 am Leave a comment

Discovery-U: A Day to Think about Science

As challenges go, this isn’t a bad one to have. As Mike Zeman met with Penn State researchers in the sciences, technology, engineering, and math to help the prepare for the short talks they are giving Friday at Discovery-U, he had to impress upon them how important the time frame is—only 15 to 18 minutes.

That’s not easy for these researchers to hit. “They’re so passionate about what they do,” Zeman ’98, ’01g says. (You might remember Zeman from our Jan./Feb. 2013 issue — he was featured in the “Everyday People” section.)

That passion should be evident Friday at Discovery-U, a day-long event at the HUB Auditorium in which Penn State faculty and researchers—and two students—will explain and tell stories about their research. The event has TED Talk overtones—the lectures are 15 to 18 minutes long, and the researchers are being encouraged to abide by the “TED commandments,” among them “Thou shalt tell a story” and “Thou shalt not read thy speech.”

Says Zeman, who’s also the director of Science-U summer science camps: “The real bottom line is expressing why this stuff is important in the future. What are the greater, bigger picture questions that are still out there?”

The lineup—suggested by students—is terrific. It starts with Tom Mallouk, Evan Pugh professor of chemistry, talking about micro-robots and ends with Richard Alley, Evan Pugh professor of geology, who shared a Nobel Prize in science for his research on climate change, discussing “environmental science for people.”

Click here to view a PDF of the entire schedule.

This is the second such event; the first, suggested last year by the Graduate Women in Science organization, was targeted more toward “getting the Penn State name out there in a good way,” Zeman says. This year’s is also geared toward engaging students who might have an interest in STEM fields (science, technology, engineering, and math) and helping upperclassmen to consider research proposals. And still, Zeman says, getting the word out about Penn State faculty and research. The sponsors show the broad reach: Dow, the Eberly College of Science Alumni Council, and the Graduate Student Association.

They’re serious about reaching out broadly.

There are three sessions Friday in the HUB Auditorium—the first from 10:05 to 11:34, the second from 11:45 to 1:23, the third from 2 to 3:41 p.m. Each has five speakers. (Ideally, the organizers would like to have people stay for a full session, but they understand that classes and other commitments may interfere, so you’re welcome for any portion.) Plus, you can watch online at www.discoveryu.psu.edu, although the website isn’t active yet. (They’re hoping some alumni tune in, as well.) And within several days of the event, they’ll post the lectures to YouTube, making them available to anyone.

They would like you to RSVP, if possible: click here to do so.

Lori Shontz, senior editor

November 4, 2013 at 3:17 pm Leave a comment

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